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CDC guidelines for infection control

Selected CDC guidelines are provided below. Infection prevention and control guidelines and recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) are available from the CDC site.

Guide to infection prevention in outpatient settings: Minimum expectations for safe care, July 2011

This document is a summary guide of infection prevention recommendations for outpatient (ambulatory care) settings. The recommendations included in this document are not new but rather reflect existing evidence-based guidelines produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee.

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CDC issues checklist for infection prevention in out-patient settings to accompany new guide, July 2011

The checklist to accompany the 2011 infection prevention guide can be used to proactively assess infection prevention and control practices.

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Guideline for the prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings, 2011

Guideline for the prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings, 2011 Taranisia MacCannell, PhD, MSc, Craig A. Umscheid, MD, MSCE, Rajender K. Agarwal, MD, MPH, Ingi Lee, MD, MSCE, Gretchen Kuntz, MSW, MSLIS, Kurt B. Stevenson, MD, MPH and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).

This guideline addresses prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings. The guideline also includes specific recommendations for implementation, performance measurement, and surveillance.

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Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities, 2008

Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008 Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee

This guideline replaces the 1996 APIC guideline for the selection and use of disinfectants.

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Guideline for isolation precautions: Preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings, 2007

Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings, June 2007, Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, 2007

The Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings 2007 updates and expands the 1996 Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals

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Injection practices for patient safety

Improper use of syringes, needles, and medication vials during routine healthcare procedures, such as administering injections have resulted in more than 50 outbreaks in both hospital and non-hospital settings with transmission of bloodborne viruses, including hepatitis C virus to more than 600 patients. These outbreaks resulted from failure to follow basic infection control procedures and aseptic technique in injection safety, including reusing syringes, contaminating multi-dose vials with unclean syringes, using single-dose vials for multiple patients, re-using end-caps from single-use syringes, using fingerstick devices on multiple patients without cleaning, and using blood-sugar measuring devices on multiple patients without cleaning. Safe infection practices are included in CDC Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals, 2007 and a number of key documents to educate patients and providers are available on the CDC Web site

Return to Safe Injection Practices

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Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, 2006

Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006. Jane D. Siegel, MD; Emily Rhinehart, RN MPH CIC; Marguerite Jackson, PhD; Linda Chiarello, RN MS; the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee

CDC developed guidelines outlining strategies to prevent the spread of drug-resistant infections in healthcare settings. This new guidelines seek to halt the rising rates of drug-resistant infections by calling on hospitals and other healthcare facilities to make comprehensive infection control programs a priority and to take aggressive steps to reduces rates of drug resistance. This guideline, though published as a stand-alone document is one component of the 2006 Isolation guidelines to be published in late 2006.

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Guidance on public reporting of healthcare-associated infections, 2005

Guidance on Public Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infections 2005 CDC Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee

CDC has developed this guidance document based on established principles for public health and HAI reporting systems. This document is intended to assist policymakers, program planners, consumer advocacy organizations, and others tasked with designing and implementing public reporting systems for HAIs. The document provides a framework for legislators, but does not provide model legislation.

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Guideline for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections, 2011

O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II Randolph A, Rupp ME, Saint S, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) Access from http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/BSI/BSI-guidelines-2011.html

These guidelines have been developed for healthcare personnel who insert intravascular catheters and for persons responsible for surveillance and control of infections in hospital, outpatient, and home healthcare settings.

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Dental health, 2003

CDC- Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings -- 2003
Kohn WG, Collins AS, Cleveland JL, Harte JA, Eklund KJ, Malvitz, DM National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the Division of Oral Health .MMWR Recommendations and Report; December 19, 2003 / Vol. 52 / No. RR--17

This report consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for infection control in dental settings. Recommendations address 1) educating and protecting dental health-care personnel; 2) preventing transmission of bloodborne pathogens; 3) hand hygiene; 4) personal protective equipment; 5) contact dermatitis and latex hypersensitivity; 6) sterilization and disinfection of patient-care items; 7) environmental infection control; 8) dental unit waterlines, biofilm, and water quality; and 9) special considerations (e.g., dental handpieces and other devices, radiology, parenteral medications, oral surgical procedures, and dental laboratoriess

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Dialysis facilities infection control requirements, 2008

CDC Infection Control Requirements for Dialysis Facilities and Clarification Regarding Guidance on Parenteral Medication Vials - MMWR August 15, 2008 / 57(32);875-876

In April 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) published in the Federal Register its final rule on Conditions for Coverage for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Facilities (1). The rule establishes new conditions dialysis facilities must meet to be certified under the Medicare program and is intended to update CMS standards for delivery of quality care to dialysis patients. CDC's 2001 Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Infections among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients (2) have been incorporated by reference into the new CMS conditions for coverage. Effective October 14, 2008, all ESRD facilities are expected to follow the CDC recommendations as a condition for receiving Medicare payment for outpatient dialysis services.

This report is intended to clarify and restate CDC's recommendation on parenteral medication to include bloodborne viral infections. The recommendations in this report supersede the 2002 CDC communication to CMS.

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Environmental infection control, 2003

CDC - Guideline for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities, 2003
Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).

Guidelines include executive summary and ranked recommendations for reducing infection risk related to air and water environmental concerns, cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces, environmental culturing, laundry and bedding, managing regulated medical waste, construction and renovation, use of carpeting, pest control, animals in healthcare facilities and water quality in hemodialysis and water sampling for Legionella.

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Hand hygiene, 2002

CDC - Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings, 2002
Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC /IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR 2002;51(No. RR-16) See also Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23[suppl]:S3-S40; Am J Infect Control 2002;30(8):1-46.

The guideline provides a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings and specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report replaces the1985 CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, and the 1995 APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings.

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Infection control - health care personnel, 1998

Guideline for infection control in health care personnel, 1998
Bolyard EA, Tablan OC, Williams WW, Pearson ML, Shapiro CN, Deithman SD. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). See also CDC; Am Journal Infect Control 1998;26(3):289-354.

Guideline addresses infections transmitted to and from healthcare personnel and includes practical tables of infections and recommendations regarding precautions and work restrictions.

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Occupational exposures HIV, 2005

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis, 2005. MMWR September 30, 2005; 54 (No. RR-9).

Guideline focuses on assessment and latest treatment of exposed healthcare personnel to the bloodborne pathogens only and is referenced by OSHA in the OSHA Bloodborne pathogen standard for HIV.

Occupational exposures HBV, HCV, 2001

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis, 2001. MMWR June 29, 2001; 50 (No. RR-11).

Guideline focuses on assessment and latest treatment of exposed healthcare personnel to bloodborne pathogens (HIV, HBV, HCV) and is referenced by OSHA in the OSHA Bloodborne pathogen standard. However, this guideline should be used for HBV and HCV only until updates are available.

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Pneumonia, 2003

Guidelines for Preventing Healthcare-associated Pneumonia, 2003. MMWR 2004;53(RR-3):1-36.

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Surgical site infection, 1999

Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999
Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. See also Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999 Apr;20(4):250-78; Am J Infect Control 1999;27(2):97-132.

Guideline includes literature review, surveillance, recommendations, tables of definitions, surgical wound classifications, and OR environmental specifications.

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Tuberculosis, 2005

Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005. Prepared for publication by Jensen P et al, NCHSTP. These Guidelines update the CDC Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-care Facilities and were last published in 1994. The 2005 draft Guidelines reflect shifts in the epidemiology of tuberculosis, advances in scientific understanding, and changes in health-care practice that have occurred in the United States in the last decade

Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005. MMWR 2005; 54(RR-17), 1-147.

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Tuberculosis QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test

Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection, United States. CDC recommends that QFT-G may be used in all circumstances in which the TST is currently used, including contact investigations, evaluation of recent immigrants, and sequential-testing surveillance programs for infection control (e.g., those for health-care workers). This report is aimed at public health officials, health-care providers, and laboratory workers with responsibility for TB control activities in the United States.

Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection, United States. MMWR 2005; 54 (No. RR-15), 1-37.

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 Urinary tract infection: Guideline for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 2009

Guideline for Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection, 2009

Carolyn V. Gould, MD, MSCR; Craig A. Umscheid, MD, MSCE; Rajender K. Agarwal, MD, MPH; Gretchen Kuntz, MSW, MSLIS; David A. Pegues, MD and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

The 1983 guidelines to prevent catheter-associated UTI, including epidemiology and control measures have been updated using a new evidence-based weighting protocol. Because of the extensive literature review and evaluation of each citation, this guideline has been released in two parts—the guideline and appendices.

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